Establishment of CRISPR/Cas9-based knock-in in a hemimetabolous insect: targeted gene tagging in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Matsuoka Y., Nakamura, T., Watanabe, T., Barnett, A.A., Mito T., Noji, S. and Extavour, C.G. Development, in press (2024). [PubMed]
Gene protein sequence evolution can predict the rapid divergence of ovariole numbers in Drosophila. C.A. Whittle, C. G. Extavour Genome Biology and Evolution, in press (2024). [PubMed]
oskar acts with the transcription factor Creb to regulate long-term memory in crickets. Arpita Kulkarni, Ben Ewen-Campen, Kanta Terao, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Yaolong Li, Takayuki Watanabe, Jonchee A. Kao, Swapnil S. Parhad, Guillem Ylla, Makoto Mizunami and Cassandra G. Extavour PNAS, 120 (21) e2218506120 (2023). [PubMed]
The evolution of ovary-biased gene expression in Hawaiian Drosophila. Church, S.H., Munro, C., Dunn, C. and Extavour C.G. PLoS Genetics (in press), 19(1): e1010607 (2023). [PubMed]
Nuclear speed and cycle length co-vary with local density during syncytial blastoderm formation in a cricket. Donoughe, S.D., Hoffmann, J., Nakamura, T., Rycroft, C. and Extavour, C.G. Nature Communications, 13:3889, 2022.

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Cricket: The third domesticated insect. Mito T., Ishimaru Y., Watanabe T., Nakamura T., Ylla G., Noji S. and Extavour G.C. Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 147:291-306 (2022). [PubMed]
Genomics and genome editing techniques of crickets, an emerging model for insect biology and food science. Nakamura, T., Ylla, G., and Extavour, C.G. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 2:100881 (2022). [PubMed]
Phylotranscriptomics Reveals Discordance in the Phylogeny of Hawaiian Drosophila and Scaptomyza (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Church, S.H. and Extavour C.G. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 39(3): msac012 (2022). [PubMed]
Editorial Overview: JEZB Special Issue on Eggs. Church, S.H., Donoughe, S. and Extavour, C.G. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 336(8):593-594 (2021). [PubMed]
Evolution of a cytoplasmic determinant: evidence for the biochemical basis of functional evolution of the novel germ line regulator Oskar. Blondel, L., Besse, S. Rivard, E., Ylla, G. and Extavour, C.G. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 39(12):5491-5513 (2021). [PubMed]
Distinct gene expression dynamics in germ line and somatic tissue during ovariole morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Tarikere, S., Ylla, G. and Extavour C.G. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, Sep 6;jkab305. doi: 10.1093/g3journal/jkab305 (2021). [PubMed]
In the Spotlight—Established researcher. Extavour, C. G. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 336(8):589-590 (2021). [PubMed]
Evolutionary dynamics of sex-biased genes expressed in cricket brains and gonads. Whittle, C.A., Kulkarni, A. and Extavour, C.G. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 34(8):1188-1211 (2021). [PubMed]
Insights into the genomic evolution of insects from cricket genomes. Ylla G., Nakamura T., Itoh T., Kajitani R., Atsuhi T., Sayuri T., Tetsuya B., Yoshiyasu I., Watanabe T., Fuketa M., Matsuoka Y., Barnett, A., Noji S., Mito T. and Extavour C.G. Communications Biology, 4(1):733 (2021). [PubMed]
Repeated loss of variation in insect ovary morphology highlights the role of development in life-history evolution. Church, S.H., de Medeiros, B.A.S., Donoughe, S.D., Marquez Reyes, N.L. and Extavour, C.G. Proceedings of the Royal Society - Part B, 288(1950):20210150 (2021). [PubMed]
Adaptation of codon and amino acid use for translational functions in highly expressed cricket genes. Whittle, C.A., Kulkarni, A., Chung, N. and Extavour, C.G. BMC Genomics, 22(1):234 (2021). [PubMed]
Topology-driven analysis of protein-protein interaction networks detects functional genetic modules regulating reproductive capacity. Kumar, T., Blondel, L. and Extavour, C.G. eLife, 9:e54082 (2020). [PubMed]
Shared cell biological functions may underlie pleiotropy of gene regulatory modules in the germ lines and nervous systems of animals. Kulkarni, A., Lopez, D., and Extavour, C.G. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00215 (2020). [PubMed]
Null hypotheses for developmental evolution. Church, S.H. and Extavour, C.G. Development, 147(8):dev178004 (2020). [PubMed]
Absence of a faster-X effect in beetles (Tribolium, Coleoptera). Whittle, C.A., Kulkarni, A. and Extavour, C.G.* G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 10(3):1125-1136 (2020). [PubMed]
Evidence of multifaceted functions of codon usage in translation within the model beetle Tribolium castaneum. Whittle, C.A., Kulkarni, A. and Extavour, C.G.* DNA Research, 26(6): 473-484 (2019). [PubMed]
Chapter 8: The Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus: Techniques for Quantitative and Functional Genetic Analyses of Cricket Biology. Kulkarni, A.* and Extavour, C.G.* Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation, Volume 68: Evo-Devo: Non-model Species in Cell and Developmental Biology (edited by Waclaw Tworzydlo and Szczepan M. Bilinski), 68:183-216 (2019).

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A dataset of egg size and shape from more than 6,700 insect species. Church, S.H.*, Donoughe, S.D., de Medeiros, B.A.S. and Extavour, C.G. Scientific Data, 6:104 (2019). [PubMed]
Hox genes limit germ cell formation in the short germ insect Gryllus bimaculatus. Barnett, A.A., Nakamura, T. and Extavour, C.G.* PNAS, 116(33):16430-16435 (2019). [PubMed]
Reproductive Capacity Evolves in Response to Ecology through Common Changes in Cell Number in Hawaiian Drosophila. Sarikaya, D.P.*, Church, S.H., Lagomarsino L.P., Magnacca K.M., Montgomery S.L., Price D.P., Kaneshiro K.Y. and Extavour C.G.* Current Biology, 29(11): 1877-1884 (2019).

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Injecting Gryllus bimaculatus Eggs. Barry, S, Nakamura, T., Matsuoka, Y., Straub, C., Horch, H.W.* and Extavour, C.G. Journal of Visualized Experiments, Aug 22 (150):10.3791/59726 (2019). [PubMed]
Ancestral and offspring nutrition interact to affect life history traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Deas, J.B.*, Blondel, L. and Extavour, C.G.* Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 286(1897):20182778 (2019). [PubMed]
Molecular evolutionary trends and feeding ecology diversification in the Hemiptera, anchored by the milkweed bug genome. Panfilio, K.A.*, Vargas Jentzsch, I.M., Benoit, J.B., Erezyilmaz, D., Suzuki, Y., Colella, S., Robertson, H.M., Poelchau, M.F., Waterhouse, R.M. Ioannidis, P. Weirauch, M.T., Hughes, D.S.T., Murali, S.C., Werren, J.H., Jacobs, G.C.G., Duncan, E.J., Armisén, D., Vreede, B.M.I., Baa-Puyoulet, P., Berger, C.S., Chang, C.-C., Chao, H., Chen, M.-J.M. , Chen, Y.-T., Childers, C.P., Chipman, A.D., Cridge, A.G., Crumire, A.J.J., Dearden, P.K., Didion, E.M., Dinh, H., Doddapaneni, H., Dolan, A., Dugan, S., Extavour, C.G., Febvay, G., Friedrich, M., Ginzburg, N., Han, Y., Heger, P., Horn, T., Hsiao, Y.-M., Jennings, E.C., Johnston, J.S., Jones, T.E. M., Jones, J.W., Khila, A., Koelzer, S., Kovacova, V., Leask, M., Lee, S.L., Lee, C.-Y.,Lovegrove, M.R., Lu, H.-L. Lu, Y. Moore, P.J., Munoz-Torres, M.C., Muzny, D.M., Palli, S.R., Parisot, N. Pick, L., Porter, M., Qu, J., Refki, P.N., Richter, R.,Rivera Pomar, R., Rosendale, A.J., Roth, S., Sachs, L., Santos, M.E., Seibert, J., Sghaier, E., Shukla, J.N.,Stancliffe, R.J., Tidswell, O., Traverso, L., van der Zee, M., Viala, S., Worley, K.C., Zdobnov, E.M., Gibbs, R.A., Richards, S.* Genome Biology, 20(1):64 (2019). [PubMed]
Contrasting patterns of molecular evolution in metazoan germ line genes. Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G.* BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19(1):53 (2019). [PubMed]
Selection shapes turnover and magnitude of sex-biased expression in Drosophila gonads. Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G.* BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19(1):60 (2019). [PubMed]
High-throughput live-imaging of embryos in microwell arrays using a modular specimen mounting system. Donoughe, S.D., Kim, C. and Extavour, C.G. Biology Open, 7(7):bio.031260 (2018). [PubMed]
The house spider genome reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication during arachnid evolution. Clarke, T., Schwager, E.E., Sharma, P.P., Wierschin, T., Pechmann, M., Akiyama-Oda, Y., Arensburger, P., Bucher, G., Buffry, A., Chao, H., Dinh, H., Doddapaneni, H., Dugan, S., Eibner, C., Extavour, C.G., Garb, J., Griffiths-Jones, S., Han, Y., Hayashi, C., Hilbrant, M., Hughes, D.S.T., Janssen, R., Lee, S.L., Leite, D.J., Murali, S.C., Muznym D.M., Nunes da Fonseca, R., Qu, J., Ronshaugen, M., Schomburg, C., Schönauer, A., Stollewerk, A., Torres-Oliva, M., Turetzek, N., Wolff, C., Worley, K.C., Gibbs, R.A., Coddington, J., Damen, W.G.M, Oda, H., Stanke, M., Ayoub, N., Prpic, N.-M., Posnien, N., Richards, S. and McGregor, A.P. BMC Biology, 15(1): 62 (2017). [PubMed]
Expression and function of spineless orthologs correlate with distal deuterocerebral appendage morphology across Arthropoda. Setton, E.V.W., March, L.W., Nolan, E.D., Jones, T.E., Cho, H., Wheeler, W.C., Extavour, C.G. and Sharma, P.P. Developmental Biology, 430(1): 224-236 (2017). [PubMed]
Convergent evolution of germ granule nucleators: a hypothesis. Kulkarni, A. and Extavour, C.G. Stem Cell Research, 24: 188-194 (2017). [PubMed]
Rapid evolution of ovarian-biased genes in the yellow-fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti). Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G. Genetics, 206(4): 2119-2137 (2017). [PubMed]
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling in animal reproductive system development and function. Lochab, A.K. and Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 427(2): 258-269 (2017). [PubMed]
Causes and evolutionary consequences of primordial germ cell specification mode in metazoans. Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 114(23): 5784-5791 (2017). [PubMed]
The genome of Parhyale hawaiensis: a model for animal development regeneration, immunity and ligno-cellulose digestion. Kao, D., Lai, A., Stamataki, E., Rosic, S., Konstantinides, N., Jarvis, E., Di Donfrancesco, A., Pouchkina-Stancheva, N., Semon, M., Grillo, M., Bruce, H., Kumar, S., Siwanowicz, I., Le, A., Lemire, A., Extavour, C.G., Browne, W., Wolff, C., Averof, M., Patel, N.H., Sarkies, P., Pavlopoulos, A. and Aboobaker, A. eLife 5, e200629 (2016). [PubMed]
Editorial Overview: Developmental mechanisms, patterning and evolution: New models for genetics and development – diversity at last. Arendt, D. and Extavour, C.G. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 39 iv-vi (2016). [PubMed]
Refuting the hypothesis that the acquisition of germ plasm accelerates animal evolution. Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G. Nature Communications, 7, 12637 (2016). [PubMed]
A premeiotic function for boule in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Iyer, H., Issigonis, M., Sharma, P.P., Extavour, C.G. and Newmark, P.A. PNAS, 113(25): E3509-18 (2016). [PubMed]
Expression-linked patterns of codon usage, amino acid frequency and protein length in the basally branching arthropod Parasteatoda tepidariorum. Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8(9) 2722-36 (2016). [PubMed]
Editorial Overview: Development, regulation and evolution of organ systems. Extavour, C.G. and Pick, L. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 13:vii-ix (2016). [PubMed]
The transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 acts downstream of BMP signaling to generate primordial germ cells in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.. Nakamura, T. and Extavour, C.G. Development 143(2), 255-263 (2016). [PubMed]
vasa and piwi are required for mitotic integrity in early embryogenesis in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. Schwager, E.E., Meng, Y. and Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 402(2): 276-290 (2015). [PubMed]
Codon and amino acid usage are shaped by selection across divergent model organisms of the Pancrustacea. Whittle, C.A. and Extavour, C.G. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 5(11) 2307-2321 (2015). [PubMed]
The significance and scope of evolutionary developmental biology: a vision for the 21st century. Moczek, A., Sears, K., Stollewerk, A., Wittkopp, P., Diggle, P., Dworkin, I., Ledon-Rettig, C., Matus, D., Roth, S., Abouheif, E., Brown, F. Chiu, C.-H., Cohen, C.S., De Tomaso, T., Gilbert, S., Hall, B., Love, A., Lyons, D., Sanger, T., Smith, J., Specht, C., Vallejo-Marin, M. and Extavour, C.G. Evolution and Development, 17(3): 198-219 (2015). [PubMed]
Embryonic development of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Donoughe, S. and Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 411(1): 140-156 (2015). [PubMed]
A conserved genetic mechanism specifies deutocerebral appendage identity in insects and arachnids. B. Sharma, P. P., Tarazona, O.A., Lopez, D.H., Schwager, E.E., Cohn, M.J., Wheeler, W.C. and Extavour, C.G. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1808) 20150698 (2015). [PubMed]
The Hippo pathway regulates homeostatic growth of stem cell niche precursors in the Drosophila ovary. Sarikaya, D.P. and Extavour, C.G. PLoS Genetics 11(2), e1004962 (2015).

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The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima. Chipman, A.D., Ferrier, D.E.K and the Strigamia maritima sequencing and annotation consortium (105 authors, including C. G. Extavour (#26) and T. Jones (#49)). PLoS Biology, 12(11): e1002005 (2014). [PubMed]
A comprehensive reference transcriptome resource for the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. Posnien, N., Zeng V., Schwager, E.E., Pechmann, M., Hilbrant, M., Keefe, J., Damen, W.G.M., Prpic-Schaper, N., McGregor, A.P. and Extavour, C.G. PLoS ONE, 9(8): e104885 (2014). [PubMed]
Hox gene duplications correlate with posterior heteronomy in scorpions. Sharma, P.P., Schwager, E.E., Extavour, C.G. and Wheeler, W.C Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1792): 20140661 (2014). [PubMed]
Ablation of a single cell from eight-cell embryos of the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis.. Nast, A. R. and Extavour, C.G. Journal of Visualized Experiments, 16 March, 2014, Issue 85, doi:10.3791/51073 (2014). [PubMed]
Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata. Sharma, P.P., Gupta, T., Schwager, E.E., Wheeler, W., and Extavour C.G EvoDevo, 5(1): 3 (2014). [PubMed]
BMP signaling is required for generation of primordial germ cells in an insect. Donoughe, S., Nakamura, T., Ewen-Campen, B., Green II, D.A., Henderson, L. and Extavour, C.G Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 111(11): 4133-4138 (2014). [PubMed]
Insulin Signaling Underlies Both Plasticity and Divergence of a Reproductive Trait in Drosophila. Green II, D.A. and Extavour, C.G. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1779): 20132673 (2014).

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Patterns of molecular evolution of the germ line specification gene oskar suggest that a novel domain may contribute to functional divergence in Drosophila. Ahuja, A. and Extavour, C.G. Development, Genes and Evolution, 224(2): 65-77 (2014). [PubMed]
Identification of a putative germ plasm in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Gupta, T. and Extavour, C.G. EvoDevo, 4(1): 34 (2013). [PubMed]
Live long and prosper: Germline stem cell maintenance revisited. Extavour, C.G BioEssays, 35(9): 763 (2013). [PubMed]
Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect. Ewen-Campen, B.*, Jones, T.E.*. and Extavour, C.G. Biology Open, 2(6): 556-568 (2013). [PubMed]
Germ Cell Specification Requires Zygotic Mechanisms Rather Than Germ Plasm in a Basally Branching Insect. Ewen-Campen, B., Donoughe, S., Clarke, D.N., and Extavour, C.G Current Biology, 23(10): 835-842 (2013). [PubMed]
Distal-less and dachshund pattern both plesiomorphic and derived structures in chelicerates: RNA interference in the harvestman Phalangium opilio.. Sharma, P.P., Schwager, E.E., Giribet, G.G., Jockusch, E. and Extavour, C.G Evolution and Development, 15(4): 228-242 (2013). [PubMed]
Developmental Gene Discovery in a Hemimetabolous Insect: De Novo Annotation and Assembly of a Transcriptome for the Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Zeng, V. Ewen-Campen, B., Horch, H.W., Roth, S., Mito, T. and Extavour, C.G. PLoS ONE, 8(5): e61479 (2013). [PubMed]
oskar Predates the Evolution of Germ Plasm in Insects. Ewen-Campen, B., Srouji, J.R., Schwager, E.E. and Extavour, C.G. Current Biology, 22(23): 2278-2283 (2012).

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Convergent evolution of a reproductive trait through distinct developmental mechanisms in Drosophila. Green II, D.A. and Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 372(1): 120-130 (2012). [PubMed]
Evolution of the chelicera: a dachshund domain is retained in the deutocerebral appendage of Opiliones (Arthropoda, Chelicerata). Sharma, P.P., Schwager, E.E., Extavour, C. G. and Giribet, G Evolution and Development, 14(6): 522-533 (2012). [PubMed]
ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species. Zeng, V. and Extavour, C.G Database, 10.1093/database/bas048 (2012).

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Hox gene expression in the harvestman Phalangium opilio reveals divergent patterning of the chelicerate opisthosoma. Sharma, P.P., Schwager, E.E., Extavour, C. G. and Giribet, G. Evolution and Development, 14(5): 450-463 (2012). [PubMed]
The roles of cell size and cell number in determining ovariole number in Drosophila. Sarikaya, D.P., Belay, A.A., Ahuja, A., Green II, D.A., Dorta, A. and Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 363(1): 279-289 (2012). [PubMed]
De novo assembly and characterization of a maternal and developmental transcriptome for the emerging model crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Zeng, V., Villanueva, K.E., Ewen-Campen, B., Alwes, F., Browne, W.E. and Extavour, C.G. BMC Genomics, 12(1): 581 (2011). [PubMed]
Notch/Delta signalling is not required for segment generation in the basally branching insect Gryllus bimaculatus. Kainz, F., Ewen-Campen, B., Akam, M. and Extavour, C.G. Development, 138(22): 5015-5026 (2011). [PubMed]
Patterns of cell lineage, movement, and migration from germ layer specification to gastrulation in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Alwes, F., Hinchen, B. and Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 359(1): 110-123 (2011). [PubMed]
Long-Lost Relative Claims Orphan Gene: oskar in a Wasp. Extavour, C.G. PLoS Genetics, 7(4): e1002045 (2011). [PubMed]
Counting in oogenesis. Green, D.A.*, Sarikaya, D.P.* and Extavour, C.G Cell and Tissue Research, 344(2): 207-212 (2011). [PubMed]
The maternal and early embryonic transcriptome of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Ewen-Campen, B., Shaner, N., Panfilio, K., Suzuki, Y., Roth, S. and Extavour, C.G. BMC Genomics, 12(1): 61 (2011). [PubMed]
Redefining stem cells and assembling germ plasm: key transitions in the evolution of the germ line. Srouji, J.R. and Extavour, C.G Science Publishers, Chapter 16, pp. 360-397 in Key Transitions in Animal Evolution, R. DeSalle and B. Schierwater, eds. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group (2010)..
The molecular machinery of germ line specification. Ewen-Campen, B., Schwager, E.E., Extavour, C.G Molecular Reproduction and Development, 77(1): 3-18 (2009). [PubMed]
Oogenesis: Making the Mos of Meiosis. Extavour, C.G Current Biology, 19(12): R489-R491 (2009). [PubMed]
Urbilaterian Reproduction: the evolution of metazoan germ cell specification mechanisms. Extavour, C.G Chapter 17, pp. 321-342 in Evolving Pathways: Key Themes in Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Alessandro Minelli and Giuseppe Fusco, eds. Cambridge University Press (2008).

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Are We There Yet? Tracking the Development of New Model Systems. Abzhanov, A., Extavour, C.G., Groover, A., Hodges, S., Hoekstra, H., Kramer, E M., Monteiro, A Trends in Genetics, 24(7): 353-360 (2008). [PubMed]
Vasa protein expression is restricted to the small micromeres of the sea urchin, but is inducible in other lineages early in development. Voronina, E., Lopez, M., Juliano, C. E., Gustafson, E., Song, J. L., Extavour, C.G., George, S., Oliveri, P., McClay, D., and Wessel, G Developmental Biology, 314(2): 276-286 (2008). [PubMed]
Gray Anatomy: phylogenetic patterns of somatic gonad structures and reproductive strategies across the Bilateria. Extavour, C.G Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47(3): 420-426 (2007).

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Evolution of the bilaterian germ line: lineage origin and modulation of specification mechanisms. Extavour, C.G Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47(5): 770-785 (2007). [PubMed]
The fate of isolated blastomeres and formation of germ cells in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Extavour, C.G. Developmental Biology, 277(2): 387-402 (2005). [PubMed]
vasa and nanos expression patterns in a sea anemone and the evolution of bilaterian germ cell specification mechanisms. Extavour, C.G., Pang, K., Matus, D.Q. and Martindale, M.Q. Evolution and Development, 7(3): 201-215 (2005). [PubMed]
Hold the germ cells, I’m on duty (on germ cell specification and caste determination in a polyembryonic wasp. Extavour, C.G BioEssays, 26(12): 1263-1267 (2004). [PubMed]
Not just a tasty snack: review of Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Crustacea, ed. G. Scholtz. Extavour, C.G. BioEssays, 26 (11): 1256-1258 (2004).
Mechanisms of germ cell specification across the metazoans: epigenesis and preformation. Extavour, C.G. and Akam, M. Development, 130(24): 5869-5884 (2003).

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Germ cell selection in genetic mosaics in Drosophila melanogaster. Extavour, C.G. and García-Bellido, A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98(20): 11341-11346 (2001). [PubMed]